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Signal Processing

Regardless of the type of acquisition, understanding the fundamental characteristics of the seismic data is important. In all data processing, modifying the seismic data to account for the air gun bubble is particularly important.

The most common signal processing issues are:

  • Modifying the frequency spectrum of the data
  • Zero/minimum phase filtering
  • Amplitude matching
  • De-bubble (Marine data)

Enhanced Signal Processing Techniques

By paying close attention to the amplitudes, a vital hydrocarbon indicator can be preserved throughout the data processing sequence. Careful control of the phase ensures that the horizons are correctly placed, and keeping as much frequency information as possible maintains a broad bandwidth for the final data volume. Regularization fills gaps caused by missing or noisy traces and improves coherency. Because the character of the generated traces is vital to their quality, we include data infill and regularization as part of signal processing. When merging surveys, our team takes great care when matching these trace attributes.

Benefits of Our Offering

Whether it is the phase or frequency content of the data that presents a challenge, our imaging team has developed a full suite of tools to shape the seismic wavelet.

  • Zero Phase Filter Generator tool creates a zero phase filter from a source signature wavelet. The filter is designed to convert the main impulse of the signature to zero phase. To avoid introducing precursors to the seismic data, residual bubble or seismic contamination is not zero-phased. Amplitude matching is based on methodologies developed using both analysis and modification modules designed to tie two different seismic data sets.
  • De-bubble Filter Generator module has been integrated into the seismic data processing system. This tool derives a filter to remove bubble events from an airgun signature. Colored noise is used to prevent instability in the filter that arises from the ghost frequencies. The filter processes frequencies between the two ‘full' parameters and tapers to no change in frequencies outside the minimum and maximum frequency parameters.

Additional Resources