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Surface-consistent Processing for Seabed Surveys

Surface-consistent processing techniques are commonly applied to ocean bottom cable (OBC) / ocean bottom nodes (OBN) data to compensate for undesirable effects on phase, frequency, and amplitude caused by acquisition-related effects and near-surface conditions. Additionally, surface consistent travel-time corrections can further improve the subsurface image. These processing techniques lead to more detailed stratigraphic analysis and improved reservoir characterization. Listed below are some of the techniques that ION employs to improve overall image quality:


Surface-consistent deconvolution corrects for variation in amplitude, phase and frequency caused by inconsistent instrument responses, poor coupling, and near-surface seismic transmission properties. ION’s surface-consistent deconvolution techniques effectively recover high frequencies, equalize amplitudes and produce a zero-phase wavelet to produce more reliable reservoir characterization.

Amplitude Scaling

Recorded signal amplitude can vary due to strength of the shot, instrument and recording responses, coupling of the hydrophone and multi-component geophone, as well as attenuation effects of ocean bottom and near-surface conditions. We estimate and adjust the relative amplitude contributions of sources and receivers on a surface-consistent basis. ION’s application of surface-consistent relative amplitude processing delivers better AVO and reservoir attribute analysis.

Travel-time Correction

Surface-consistent statics correct for travel-time delays caused by variations in the near-surface velocity, rough seafloor topography, tidal statics, and rapid changes in water column salinity or temperature. Our accurate travel-time corrections facilitate an improved seismic image that can lead to more reliable structural mapping and detailed stratigraphic analysis.

Surface–consistent Corrections for Multicomponent Recording

Amplitude, phase, frequency, and travel-time corrections for hydrophone and multicomponent geophones are unique. Independent surface-consistent processing for both OBC/OBN sensor types is crucial for detailed stratigraphic analysis and understanding lithology changes at the reservoir level.